Section: System Management Commands (8)
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groupadd - create a new group
groupadd [options] group
command creates a new group account using the values specified on the command line plus the default values from the system. The new group will be entered into the system files as needed.
The options which apply to the
This option causes the command to simply exit with success status if the specified group already exists. When used with
-g, and the specified GID already exists, another (unique) GID is chosen (i.e.
is turned off).
-g, --gid GID
The numerical value of the group's ID. This value must be unique, unless the
option is used. The value must be non-negative. The default is to use the smallest ID value greater than or equal to
and greater than every other group.
See also the
option and the
Display help message and exit.
-K, --key KEY=VALUE
defaults (GID_MIN, GID_MAX and others). Multiple
options can be specified.
doesn't work yet.
This option permits to add a group with a non-unique GID.
-p, --password PASSWORD
The encrypted password, as returned by
crypt(3). The default is to disable the password.
This option is not recommended because the password (or encrypted password) will be visible by users listing the processes.
You should make sure the password respects the system's password policy.
Create a system group.
The numeric identifiers of new system groups are chosen in the
range, defined in
login.defs, instead of
-R, --root CHROOT_DIR
Apply changes in the
directory and use the configuration files from the
The following configuration variables in
change the behavior of this tool:
GID_MAX (number), GID_MIN (number)
Range of group IDs used for the creation of regular groups by
The default value for
GID_MAX) is 1000 (resp. 60000).
Maximum members per group entry. When the maximum is reached, a new group entry (line) is started in
(with the same name, same password, and same GID).
The default value is 0, meaning that there are no limits in the number of members in a group.
This feature (split group) permits to limit the length of lines in the group file. This is useful to make sure that lines for NIS groups are not larger than 1024 characters.
If you need to enforce such limit, you can use 25.
Note: split groups may not be supported by all tools (even in the Shadow toolsuite). You should not use this variable unless you really need it.
SYS_GID_MAX (number), SYS_GID_MIN (number)
Range of group IDs used for the creation of system groups by
The default value for
SYS_GID_MAX) is 101 (resp.
Group account information.
Secure group account information.
Shadow password suite configuration.
It is usually recommended to only use groupnames that begin with a lower case letter or an underscore, followed by lower case letters, digits, underscores, or dashes. They can end with a dollar sign. In regular expression terms: [a-z_][a-z0-9_-]*[$]?
On Debian, the only constraints are that groupnames must neither start with a dash ('-') nor plus ('+') nor tilde ('~') nor contain a colon (':'), a comma (','), or a whitespace (space:' ', end of line: '\n', tabulation: '\t', etc.).
Groupnames may only be up to 32 characters long.
You may not add a NIS or LDAP group. This must be performed on the corresponding server.
If the groupname already exists in an external group database such as NIS or LDAP,
will deny the group creation request.
command exits with the following values:
invalid command syntax
invalid argument to option
GID not unique (when
group name not unique
can't update group file
- EXIT VALUES
- SEE ALSO